SXRD Flow Reactor

The SXRD flow reactor is a novel and versatile system to study catalytically active surfaces under industrially relevenat conditions. The unique capabilities of this SXRD flow reactor chamber add a new dimension to the fields of surface chemistry, catalysis and material research.

The system has been developed in a collaboration between Leiden University and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (beamline ID3). It allows the user to quickly switch back on forth between an uncompromised UHV environment and a flow reactor environment. During the switch between the two modes, there is no sample transfer, and as a result no alignment is required, thereby saving valuable synchrotron time.

This very compact instrument combines all the traditional UHV preparation tools like Ar-ion sputtering, high temperature annealing and even the possibility to evaporate metals from a high temperature source onto the sample. After preparing the sample surface (metal, nanoparticles, oxides) the system closes a small volume (12 cm3) flow reactor cell around the sample, in which it can be exposed to elevated gas pressures (up to 2 bar) and elevated temperatures.The flow reactor incorporates a semi-spherical, X-ray transparent Be window, giving a free 2π solid angle view on the sample surface.

This system is by default optimized for SXRD and GISAXS experiments, but can easily be converted to aim a light source (IR) onto the reactor cell for spectroscopy or to accommodate an STM or AFM head.


  • Base pressure: 10-9 mbar
  • Max reactor pressure: 2 bar
  • Reactor volume: 12 ml (smaller on request)
  • Sample temperature (UHV): 300 K - 1200 K
  • Sample temperature (2 bar): 300 K - 800 K
  • Flow rate: 0-50 (100) mbar l / min
  • X-ray window material: Be, Al, Si, Quartz, ...

Additional information and documentation

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